Automated Tests as the Basis for Operational Excellence

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One of the key ideas behind Operational Excellence is automation.

Automated tests are the basis for Operational Excellence because all of the other practices assume we have a sufficient set of automated tests to back us up against regressions and to detect problems as early as possible.

Continuous Integration makes no sense without tests and would be very laborious and error prone without automated tests.

Continuous Deployment/Delivery would be extremely risky without automated tests. No one wants to change production software without a sense of how safe it is to do so.

Software projects benefit from test automation not only because computers are better than us at repeating tasks. More importantly, by writing down test cases as code we can unambiguously communicate intent with other humans, more easily reproduce test results and track changes over time.

Here we’ll consider four complementary types of tests:

Since automated tests are nothing new, much has been written about them. There is a lot of material online and offline about unit, integration and end-to-end tests.

What I consider to be a less known and less commonly implemented practice is that of testing canaries. It is, however, a type of testing that can provide a lot of value to cloud-native software. Therefore, I’ll devote more words to the latter.

Unit Testing

According to a 2019 survey from StackOverflow with nearly 90,000 developers:

[…] they are overwhelmingly in favor of unit testing, whether they currently use them or not. In fact, developers at companies who embrace unit testing also have slightly higher job satisfaction.

Unit tests are at the bottom of the test pyramid.12

They are there to document how pieces of your code base should work, to catch low level problems early during development, and to prevent the regression of previously fixed bugs.

Your team will typically write lots of unit tests, and ship them with new functionality and bug fixes.

Integration Testing

Integration tests are higher level tests that typically operate on more than one component of the system. For example, for an online store, imagine a product catalog microservice being tested with only a subset of the components that make up the store, with a focus on the contract of that microservice.

They go in the middle of the testing pyramid.

End-to-end Testing

End-to-end tests focus on usage flows of the system as a whole. In the online store example, end-to-end tests would check that a new user can create an account and that existing users can find and shop products.

They are often harder to write and slower to run. You want to have fewer of them.

Testing Canaries

Not to be confused with canary deployments,3 testing canaries are programs that continuously live test the most important operations that users can perform with your software. They are bots that constantly throw traffic at your system to perform and verify the outcome of key user actions.

A yellow bird

They should be the first ones to detect inconsistent behavior due to an incorrect deployment, software bug, bad configuration or other problems that reveal themselves (sometimes only) in the production environment.

Canaries are independent auxiliary components and thus may, and should, be deployed by their own dedicated deployment pipeline, independent of the pipeline for the software under test.

Good canaries are simple and easy to understand. Each canary should focus on one key use case of your software. Have multiple canaries to cover your most important functionality.

One modern way to implement canaries is to write small programs that run on a schedule with AWS Lambda.

Don’t forget that canaries cost you money. Make the best use of them. They should be at the tip of your testing pyramid. You shall only have a reasonably small number of canaries, covering the most critical functionality.

Make sure canaries produce meaningful logs as they can be of help estimating failure impact, for example “API /xyz was down between 11:35 and 11:45, as demonstrated by our canary logs”.

You may want to filter traffic from a canary. Make your canaries identify themselves by, for example, sending an appropriate User-Agent HTTP header.

Integrate your canaries with your monitoring and alerting systems. Whenever a canary runs into a problem, make sure your alerting system pages in a human operator to investigate. Be careful with over alerting, though. Remember we are working with a distributed system and design your canary to tolerate small problems: delays, missed events, etc. You do not want to wake up a human operator in the middle of the night for no good reason.


One quick note before you go write your tests and fancy canaries.

Umer Mansoor wrote smart cautionary words about trying to do things you don’t need just because you saw them elsewhere.

I’ll emphasize here that not all teams need to implement all practices to achieve Operational Excellence. In fact, each company and team, as they mature, should concentrate on developing their people and their practices with a focus on what is necessary and what works for them at each stage of their growth.


  1. The pyramid metaphor is documented in Test Pyramid by Martin Fowler [return]
  2. A more in-depth discussion is available at The Practical Test Pyramid by Ham Vocke [return]
  3. The idea is explained in the article Canary Release by Danilo Sato, and is in fact complementary to having the test canaries as described above. [return]